The Christian State of Life
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Article of the Polish March Constitution of declared the Catholic Church to hold "the principal position among religious denominations equal before the law" in reference to the idea of first among equals. The article was continued in force by article 81 of the April Constitution of Kierkegaard's Critique of Christian Nationalism. Oxford University Press. One cannot have a Christian state without a state Church. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Under the established church approach, the government will assist the state church and likewise the church will assist the government.
Religious education is mandated by law to be taught in all schools, public or private. The History of Christianity. But while Persia fiercely repelled Christianity from its frontier, upon that frontier arose a Christian state. Armenia was the first country which embraced Christianity as the religion of the King, the nobles, and the people. A Global History of Architecture.
In the 4th century, King Ezana converted to Christianity and declared Aksum a Christian state—the first Christian state in the history of the world. Prometheus Books. In the Edict of Thessalonica he expressed the imperial "desire" that all Roman citizens should become Christians, the emperor adjudging all other madmen and ordering them to be designated as heretics, There was thus created the "Christian State. Eastern Europe.
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In contrast, the emperor Justinian refashioned the eastern part of the Roman Empire into a strong and dynamic Byzantine Empire, which claimed Bosnia-Hercegovina, among other provinces. The Byzantine Empire became the world's predominant Christian state, based on Roman law, Greek culture, and the Greek language.
Retrieved 11 May Thus the Constitution of Costa Rica, which is considered a model of stable democracy in Latin America, states in Article The Roman Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State, which contributes to its maintenance, without preventing the free exercise in the Republic of other forms of worship that are not opposed to universal morality or good customs.
Peeters Publishers. Denmark has declared the Evangelical Lutheran church to be that national church par. This declaration implies that the Danish State does not take a neutral stand in religious matters. Nevertheless, freedom of religion has been incorporated in the Constitution. Nielsen , 77 gives a short description of the position of the minority religious communities in comparison to that of the State Church: The Lutheran established church is a department of the state. Church affairs are government by a central government ministry, and clergy are government employees.
The other small religious communities, viz. Roman Catholics, Methodists, Baptists and Jews, have the constitutional status of 'recognised communities of faith'. Contrary to the minority religious communities, the Lutheran Church is fully financed by the Danish State. A Confucian Constitutional Order. Princeton University Press.
The features of the state affect the essence of the state, but the key term is that of historical identity, hence this chapter concentrates on historical identity as the essence of the state, though at times some of the other features will also be referred to. For instance, ancient Greece has now become an Orthodox Christian state. Gordon 1 January Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing. A World Survey of Religion and the State. Cambridge University Press. Liechtenstein's constitution designates the Catholic Church as the state Church and guarantees religious freedom.
Article 38 provides protection for the property rights of all religious institutions and states that "the administration of church property in the parishes shall be regulated by a specific law; the agreement of church authorities shall be sought before the law is enacted. Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 4 September The Diplomat. Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved June 16, Fodor's South Pacific. As King George I of Tonga, Tupou created the "modern" Christian state with the Cross dominating its flag, and with the rigorous constitutional clause regulating observation of the Sabbath.
Brill Academic Publishers. The Constitution of Tuvalu in a similar vein constitutes Tuvalu as "an independent State based on Christian principles The State of Vatican City, originally established by the Lateran Pacts of , approximates most faithfully the ideal-typical conception of theocratic Roman Catholic state. The Pope is ex officio simultaneously leader of the Roman Catholic Church as well as Head of State and Head of the Government of the State of the Vatican City; he also possesses de jure absolute authority over the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Practically all acts and policies of the Vatican City revolve around the interests of the Holy See and, apart from the members of the Pontifical Swiss Guard, virtually all inhabitants of the Vatican City are members of the clergy. Yet what is intriguing about this argument is that this modern secular state arises from, or is the simultaneous realisation and negation of, the Christian state. Karl Marx: Selected Writings. Indeed, it is not the so-called Christian state, that one that recognizes Christianity as its basis, as the state religion, and thus adopts an exclusive attitude to other religions, that is the perfected Christian state, but rather the atheist state, the Patout 1 April Georgetown University Press.
The religious group is confronted by a pagan state, a Jewish state, a Christian state, an Islamic state, or a secular state. Gender, Justice, and the Wars in Iraq. Lexington Books.
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Just as Christian just war theory justified the actions of the Christian state, Islamic jihad theory began with the founding of the Islamic state. Government and Politics of the Contemporary Middle East. Western Civilization. Cengage Learning. The Byzantine Empire was both a Greek and a Christian state. Increasingly, Latin fell into disuse as Greek became both the common and the official language of the empire. The Byzantine Empire was also built on a faith in Jesus that was shared by almost all of its citizens.
An enormous amount of artistic talent was poured into the construction of churches, church ceremonies, and church decoration. Spiritual principles deeply permeated Byzantine art. Jain Publishing Company. An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. SAGE Publications. Then, in the early 4th century, Ezana, Aksum's ruler, converted to Christianity and proclaimed Aksum a Christian state. Washington, D. The government as a whole treats religion well and allows missionaries to freely enter and move around the country.
Only the Catholic holy days are recognized as holidays, but the state generally allows people time to celebrate their holy days if they are of another religion.
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The public schools provide religious education, but parents can opt their children out if they choose. Religion in the 21st Century. Sweyn brought about Denmark's transition from a tribal civilisation to an early Christian state and furthermore modernised the organisation of the Christian church. Augsburg Publishing House. Encyclopedia of Global Religion. A majority of Danes, Pastors in the Church of Denmark are civil servants employed by the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs, which also constitutes the head of administration.
The Carolingian Renaissance heightened appreciation within England of the role of king and church in a Christian state. The requirement that the collective worship be of a broadly Christian character is satisfied ' October 11, Retrieved November 1, Moreover, in Jordan the monarchy has stably assured that cabinets include Christian ministers, also appointing Christians as palace advisors, to senior ranks in the military and high positions within public administration.
However, a full picture cannot ignore the flip side of both these guarantees and the quota system. On the one hand, unresolved issues endure, such as marriages between Christian men and Muslim women; some aspects related to inheritance; the custody of children in mixed marriages and the prohibition of conversions from Islam 5 , not to mention the impossibility for Christians to rise to the highest political and military ranks S.
Sayegh, The Jordanian laws guarantee full respect for their beliefs, but also weaken their position as individuals within society and the public sphere. Without overstating the negative aspects of such a schema, since their number is somewhat marginal both in terms of actual members and percentage of the overall population, the quota system clearly represents the will to grant them a solid and definite political representation, avoiding their struggle to attain it F.
McCallum, Sabella, 8. Moreover, to this picture should be added the fact that the persisting significance of tribal networks within both Christian and Muslim dimensions still orients the selection of candidates and the nature of the representation. From this standpoint, the recognition of a quota for Christians as a protected religious minority gave the tribal networks control of a guaranteed field in which to replicate their logics, overlapping and intertwining with the community dimension and reinforcing each other.
Indeed, at least for the Transjordanians, tribalism could be a way of expressing a political subjectivity rooted in the history of this land and its political system no matter what the faith professed. Nonetheless, it again embeds it in a sub-state level, amplifying the effect of the quota system above described.
This creates the paradox and stalemate that involves most of the Christians within the Middle East, and that in Jordan is particularly accentuated, also because the highest ecclesiastical institutions of each Church reside outside the country. Given the specific nature of the Jordanian political field, centred on the role of the King and the royal court, Christian communities and institutions seek in the King and his entourage the real guarantee of their free existence and not in the state or social structure.
Although the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood has never questioned the legitimacy and existence of the Hashemite state and system, being integrally part of the specific Hashemite religious policy, the first Muslim Brotherhood governmental experience in raised some concerns and perplexities among Christians M. Boulbly, Controlling the Ministry of Education allowed it to re-arrange the school year, scheduling exams during Christian holidays and thereby creating problems for Christian teachers.
This short experience showed the possibility of a reduction, if not an involution, in Christian guarantees A. Pacini, Brand, Accordingly, Christian communal institutions schools and charitable institutions supported this strategy, becoming a stabilizing factor for the monarchy. After , with proclamation of the full independence of the Hashemite Kingdom from Great Britain, the content of this system and relationship was not totally unquestioned. Tsimhoni, Antoun, and established as the cornerstone of Islamic-Christian dialogue under the Hashemite family, as the Amman Message clearly stated in www.
It also represented the will to reinforce the role of Jordan as standard bearer of Islamic-Christian dialogue, a recurrent objective already manifested during the first Papal visit to the Holy Land and during the s with the foundation of the Royal Ahal al-Bayt Islamic Thought Foundation and the Royal Institute for Interfaith Studies in Amman Aside from their natural social and charitable vocations, both Catholics and the Greek-Orthodox defined their community boundaries and spheres not only by negotiating their legal status and the content of this double relationship of dependence on and independence from the state, but also by directly managing the spatial organization of their institutions.
On the one hand, investing in large-scale building operations enabled it to consolidate its boundaries and reinforce the relationship between clergies and laity G.